The Yellow River Basin spans the four tectonic units of the Kunlun, Qinling, Qilian orogenic belts and the North China Craton, and is bounded by the deep faults of the Helan Mountains, the Liupan Mountains and the Taihang Mountains. It is the “energy basin”. It provides energy support for the country's long-term economic and social development. The basin is rich in mineral resources, and the types of minerals are relatively complete. The dominant minerals are coal, oil, natural gas, bauxite, molybdenum, gold, iron, limestone, dolomite, gypsum, etc. The metallogenic age was concentrated in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The study found that the mineral resources are characterized by concentrated distribution. The mineral resources are mainly distributed in the Ordos Basin and its periphery, Qinling and other regions, involving 11 metallogenic belts, and 19 mineral resource bases including coal, oil, natural gas, bauxite, gold, molybdenum, copper, lead and zinc have been formed. Through the discoveries in prospecting, strategic mineral resources such as shale oil, gold, lithium, and helium have shown great potential for prospecting. We should further optimize the layout of energy development and strengthen the integrated development and utilization of energy resources. The unconventional oil and gas resources like coalbed methane and shale gas are exploited. The above measures comprehensively promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.