In the new era, serving ecological civilization is a new duty entrusted to China geological survey. In a broad sense, all related geological survey can be called the eco−geological survey. Due to lacking of technical standards to support the work in the initial exploration stage, in fact, the content of eco−geological survey work is still unclear. So, it is greatly significant for achieving the objectives to sort out the connotation of relevant concepts, clarify work ideas, and determine survey contents. In this case, tasks and objectives of eco−geological survey will be discussed on the basis of the theory of Earth system science, in which the clue between geology and ecology is the constraints of supergene geological process on the surficial ecological development. Therefore, it is proposed that ecological geology belongs to the category of "Geology +". Based on the surface geological processes of different geological and geomorphic units in terrestrial ecosystems, this study selects ecology−supporting sphere survey as an example, and divides the terrestrial ecosystem into three types from erosion area to sedimentary area, for example, shallow mountain−hill area, river−lake−wetland area, and plain−basin area. According to the geological characteristics of different survey units, detail explanations are stated respectively for the survey content, survey methods, and methods. Consequently, the expression of achievements and their applications are discussed, which will provide a reference for other related ecology−geological survey works.