While coal mining has made significant contributions to national energy security, it has also caused serious mining environmental problems. The situation of coal as the main energy source in China is difficult to reverse in the short term. The ecological response mechanism and technologies for ecological restoration caused by coal mining have become key technological issues that urgently need to be solved in the path of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature. This article takes the Jurassic coalfield in the northern part of the Ordos basin, a national large−scale energy base, as the research area. Based on the search and analysis of a large amount of literature, the ecological response mechanism and key ecological restoration technologies of coal mining are summarized in three aspects: geological environment, water environment, and vegetation ecological environment. The key scientific and technological issues that still exist are analyzed and condensed. Further research suggestions were proposed from three aspects: the response mechanism and evolution law of the ecosystem under the coupling of multiple factors, key technologies for rapid and intelligent identification of ecological problems and risk prevention and control, and the implementation pattern and path of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature.