Acid mine drainage and its associated heavy metal pollution are the most important mine pollution problems in pyrite−bearing mining areas and the most difficult to comprehensively treat. In order to find out the white pollution and causes of aluminum mining rivers from abandoned stone coal mines in the Haoping river basin, satellite remote sensing interpretation, non−fixed−wing UAV aerial survey, sample collection and analysis, and dynamic monitoring of water quality in major river sections have been carried out since 2021. The results show that, ①white pollution of aluminum is common in rivers in the study area, and three patterns can be seen: the two channels are mixed with river water with different pH degrees to form white water belts; after the natural fall of the river water, white pollutants are formed on the rock surface of the riverbed; river water naturally evolves to form acidic water, acidic sulfur water, and acidic white water. ②Aluminum ion pollution in river water was widespread and seriously exceeded the standard, the average content of Al ions in 216 river waters was 8.6 mg/l, the sample exceeded the standard rate by 65.8%, and the average excess rate of Al ions in the three river waters of 19 river sections was 90.48%. ③ The aluminum in the river comes from the result of the acid water dissolution of feldspar in the stone coal mine and its surrounding rock, and the flowing water at the bottom of the waste residue pile is the main source of pollution of the river aluminum. ④ Aluminum ions in river water have a significant negative correlation with pH, and the greater the acidity of river water, the higher the content of aluminum ions in river water; after the formation of white amorphous gels in river water, the content of aluminum ions in river water decreased significantly. The increase in the pH of river water is the main factor in the formation of white pollutants in rivers. The white pollutants of aluminum in river water have amorphous characteristics, complex chemical composition, and are complex compounds composed of sulfate, hydroxide and aluminum. The white amorphous gel of aluminum has the ability to adsorb heavy metal ions in river water. The research results can have important theoretical and practical application value for the pollution prevention and control of aluminum in the research area.